Recommendation of a low-sodium diet is the most common nonpharmacologic intervention used in patients with heart failure (HF). However, nonadherence to this recommendation is extremely high. There are no instruments available for the specific measurement of patients' perceptions of their barriers to, and attitudes toward, following a low-sodium diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ). Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the DSRQ assesses adherence through the use of 3 subscales.