- •This review examined risk factors for post-intensive care syndrome-family, and history of mental illness had the largest effect size that increased the risk of post-intensive care syndrome-family.
- •Poor communication with intensive care unit staff was identified as a risk factor attributable to the psychosocial experiences of families, many such modifiable risk factors have not been identified.
- •Additional studies are needed to further clarify and identify modifiable risk factors for the post-intensive care syndrome-family to provide stronger evidence.
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Heart & Lung: The Journal of Cardiopulmonary and Acute Care
- Symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of intensive care unit patients before discharge or death. A prospective multicenter study.J Crit Care. 2005; 20 (1.): 90-96https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2004.11.004
- Risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms in family members of intensive care unit patients.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005; 171: 987-994https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200409-1295OC
- Role incongruence and psychological stress symptoms in substitute decision makers of intensive care patients.Am J Crit Care. 2020; 29: 301-310https://doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2020307
- Posttraumatic stress disorder in close Relatives of intensive care unit patients’ Evaluation (PRICE) study.Aust Crit Care. 2014; 27: 183-187https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2014.04.003
- Complicated grief after death of a relative in the intensive care unit.Eur Respir J. 2015; 45: 1341-1352https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00160014
- Post-traumatic stress disorder and complicated grief are common in caregivers of neuro-ICU patients.Neurocrit Care. 2017; 26: 436-443https://doi.org/10.1007/s12028-016-0372-5
- ICU bereaved surrogates’ comorbid psychological-distress states and their associations with prolonged grief disorder.Crit Care. 2022; 26: 102https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-022-03981-7
- Improving long-term outcomes after discharge from intensive care unit: report from a stakeholders’ conference.Crit Care Med. 2012; 40: 502-509https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e318232da75
- Patient and family post-intensive care syndrome.AACN Adv Crit Care. 2016; 27: 184-186https://doi.org/10.4037/aacnacc2016132
- Families and post-intensive care syndrome.Am Nurse Today. 2018; 13: 6-11
- Psychological sequelae in family caregivers of critically ill intensive care unit patients. A systematic review.Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2019; 16: 894-909https://doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201808-540SR
- Post-intensive care syndrome: its pathophysiology, prevention, and future directions.Acute Med Surg. 2019; 6: 233-246https://doi.org/10.1002/ams2.415
- Symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of intensive care unit patients: ethical hypothesis regarding decision-making capacity.Crit Care Med. 2001; 29: 1893-1897https://doi.org/10.1097/00003246-200110000-00007
- Prevalence and risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in relatives of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.Resuscitation. 2014; 85: 801-808https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.02.022
- Limited family members/staff communication in intensive care units in the Czech and Slovak Republics considerably increases anxiety in patients’ relatives—The DEPRESS study.BMC Psychiatry. 2014; 14: 21https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-14-21
- Interventions in post-intensive care syndrome-family: a systematic literature review.Crit Care Med. 2020; 48: e835-e840https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004450
- A communication strategy and brochure for relatives of patients dying in the ICU.N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 469-478https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa063446
- A randomized trial of a family-support intervention in intensive care units.N Engl J Med. 2018; 378: 2365-2375https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1802637
- A three-step support strategy for relatives of patients dying in the intensive care unit: a cluster randomised trial.Lancet. 2022; 399: 656-664https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02176-0
- The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.BMJ. 2021; 372: n71https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n71
- Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group.JAMA. 2000; 283 (Anal Obs Stud Epidemiol (Moose) Group): 2008-2012https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.15.2008
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Study quality assessment tools: quality assessment tool for observational, cohort and cross-sectional studies. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools Accessed September 1 2022,; 2021.
- Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.BMJ. 2003; 327: 557-560https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557
- Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package.J Stat Softw. 2010; 36: 1-48https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v036.i03
- Course and predictors of posttraumatic stress-related symptoms among family members of deceased ICU patients during the first year of bereavement.Crit Care. 2021; 25: 282https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03719-x
- End-of-life-care quality in ICUs is associated with family surrogates’ severe anxiety and depressive symptoms during their first 6 months of bereavement.Crit Care Med. 2021; 49: 27-37https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004703
- Depression and anxiety in relatives of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: results of a prospective observational study.J Crit Care. 2019; 51: 57-63https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.01.026
- Novel risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in family members of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors.Crit Care Med. 2019; 47: 934-941https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003774
- Acute physiologic stress and subsequent anxiety among family members of ICU patients.Crit Care Med. 2018; 46: 229-235https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000002835
- Communication quality predicts psychological well-being and satisfaction in family surrogates of hospitalized older adults: an observational study.J Gen Intern Med. 2018; 33: 298-304https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4222-8
- Family members of critically ill cancer patients: assessing the symptoms of anxiety and depression.Intensiv Care Med. 2009; 35: 899-902https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-009-1406-7
- Caesar: a new tool to assess relatives’ experience of dying and death in the ICU.Intensiv Care Med. 2016; 42: 995-1002https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-016-4260-4
- Associations between caregiver-detected delirium and symptoms of depression and anxiety in family caregivers of critically ill patients: a cross-sectional study.BMC Psychiatry. 2021; 21: 187https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03200-7
- Anxiety and depression in family members of people hospitalized in an intensive care unit.Psicol Teor Prat. 2019; 21: 328-343https://doi.org/10.5935/1980-6906/psicologia.v21n1p328-343
- The persistent risk of chronicity in recurrent episodes of nonbipolar major depressive disorder: a prospective follow-up.Am J Psychiatry. 1986; 143: 24-28https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.143.1.24
- Risk factors for the onset of panic and generalised anxiety disorders in the general adult population: a systematic review of cohort studies.J Affect Disord. 2014; 168: 337-348https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.021
- Factors associated with possible complicated grief and major depressive disorders.Psychooncology. 2018; 27: 915-921https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.4610
- Factors of complicated grief pre-death in caregivers of cancer patients.Psycho Oncol. 2008; 17: 105-111https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1188
- Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National comorbidity Survey Replication.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62: 593-602https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593
- Prevalence of depression among adults aged 20 and over: united States, 2013-2016.NCHS Data Brief. 2018; : 1-8
- Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National comorbidity Survey.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995; 52: 1048-1060https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950240066012
- Gender differences in threat biases: trauma type matters in posttraumatic stress disorder.J Trauma Stress. 2019; 32: 701-711https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22439
- Psychological burden in inpatient relatives: the forgotten side of medical management.Q J Med. 2014; 107: 115-122https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hct210
World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. 11th ed. https://icd.who.int/. Accessed September 1 2022,; 2018.
- Disturbed grief: prolonged grief disorder and persistent complex bereavement disorder.BMJ. 2017; 357: j2016https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j2016
- Posttraumatic stress and complicated grief in family members of patients in the intensive care unit.J Gen Intern Med. 2008; 23: 1871-1876https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0770-2
- The desirability of an intensive care unit (ICU) clinician-led bereavement screening and support program for family members of ICU decedents (ICU Bereave).J Crit Care. 2014; 29311.e9-311.16https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.11.024
- Risk factors for complicated grief among family members bereaved in intensive care unit settings: a systematic review.PLoS ONE. 2022; 17e0264971https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0264971