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Can support surfaces characteristics influence high-quality chest compression? manikin experiment with a mechanical device

  • Carla de Azevedo Vianna
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Carla de Azevedo Vianna – Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. - Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE:. 20211-110.
    Affiliations
    Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 20211-110

    Pró-Cardíaco Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua General Polidoro 192, Botafogo / Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 22280-003
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  • Juliana Faria Campos
    Affiliations
    Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 20211-110
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  • Hudson Carmo de Oliveira
    Affiliations
    Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 20211-110
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  • Debora Mazioli Machado
    Affiliations
    Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 20211-110

    Pró-Cardíaco Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua General Polidoro 192, Botafogo / Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 22280-003
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  • Gabriela Barcellos de Bakker
    Affiliations
    Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 20211-110

    Americas Medical City Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Jorge Cury 550, Barra da Tijuca / Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 22775-00
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  • Rafael Celestino da Silva
    Affiliations
    Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 20211-110
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  • Marcos Antônio Gomes Brandão
    Affiliations
    Anna Nery School of Nursing, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rua Afonso Cavalcanti, 275/ Cidade Nova Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ZIPCODE: 20211-110
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Published:October 10, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2022.09.023

      Highlights

      • Support surfaces variables, such as size, material, and density can influence the force performed during chest compression.
      • Backboard was not relevant for decreasing strength, regardless of the bed/stretch and mattress setups and the backboards' characteristics.
      • The dimensions and type of beds and mattresses, mainly, are related to higher resistance.
      • Intensive care environments present the most significant challenge in terms of surface characteristics that do not favor quality chest compression..

      Abstract

      Background: Support surfaces variables, such as size, material, and density, can determine chest compression depth in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Objective: to analyze the force required to do a high-quality chest compression concerning different surfaces in CPR. Method: This experimental study was developed using a Little Anne manikin and a mechanical device to perform chest compressions. Nine sets of surfaces were tested and compared to a control. Results: 230 experimental tests were done in sets of bed or stretcher + mattress and presence or absence of different backboards. In the control condition, the average force to reach 5 cm of depth was 42.14±0.97 (kgf). Set 9, compatible with a narrow stretcher with a thin mattress, had the best surfaces to reach recommended depth, with or without a backboard. All other sets required significantly more force for high-quality chest compression. Regression analysis confirms that backboard size is not significant for the force for high-quality chest compression. Conclusion: There is an association of dimensions and types of beds or stretchers and mattresses with a force increase. Type and dimensions of the backboard are not relevant for the force required, regardless of the characteristics of the set of the bed or stretcher and mattress.

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