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Preoperative frailty based on laboratory data and postoperative health outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

      Highlights

      • High frailty levels are associated with adverse health outcomes after CABG surgery.
      • Frail patients are at high risk of postoperative readmission and extended hospital stays.
      • Lab-based frailty could capture a need for thorough frailty assessments for CABG patients.

      Abstract

      Background

      Frailty is associated with adverse surgical outcomes. Patients with cardiovascular diseases have many risk factors of frailty; thus, preoperative frailty evaluation is necessary to predict adverse outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Laboratory data based-frailty assessments are objective and not time-consuming, addressing the need for an accurate but simple frailty screening for patients awaiting CABG surgery.

      Objectives

      This retrospective study aimed to determine the association between laboratory based-frailty and patient health outcomes after CABG surgery.

      Methods

      We evaluated 896 patients who underwent on-pump or off-pump CABG surgery between August 1, 2015 and July 31, 2020 at a tertiary hospital. The frailty index-laboratory (FI-LAB), which comprises 32 laboratory parameters and vital signs, was used for frailty assessment.

      Results

      The patients were divided into three groups according to their preoperative FI-LAB level as low (FI-LAB <0.25, 23.0%), moderate (FI-LAB ≥0.25 to ≤0.4, 54.9%), and high (FI-LAB>0.4, 22.1%) frailty groups. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, the lengths of hospital stay and intensive care unit stay were longer by 2.20 days (p=.023) and by 0.89 days (p=.009), respectively, in the high frailty group than those in the low frailty group. The odds ratio for 30-day readmission was also 2.58 times higher in the high frailty group than that in the low frailty group.

      Conclusion

      A high preoperative FI-LAB score indicates increasing risks of adverse postoperative outcomes among CABG surgery patients. FI-LAB has potential strengths to capture the need for a more thorough frailty assessment for cardiac surgery patients.

      Keywords

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