- •Tai Chi lowers blood pressure and increases the quality of life in adults with essential hypertension.
- •Tai Chi lowers total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood glucose.
- •Tai Chi has no significant effect on high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol.
- •There is strong evidence for the short-term efficacy of Tai Chi exercises.
Hypertension is the major attributable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effect of Tai Chi on essential hypertension (EH) is contentious.
In this study, we investigated the effects of Tai Chi on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and quality of life in adults with EH.
Using data collected from 15 databases up to December 2018, we meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of the effect of Tai Chi on EH.
Tai Chi exercise was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD −12.47, 95%CI −16.00 to −8.94, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD −6.46, 95%CI −8.28 to −4.64, P < 0.001); better quality of life (SMD 0.62, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.90, P < 0.001); lower lipid profiles, including total cholesterol (WMD −0.49, 95% CI −0.62 to −0.37, P < 0.001), triglycerides (WMD −0.49, 95% CI −0.92 to −0.07, P = 0.02), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (WMD −0.86, 95% CI −1.30 to −0.43, P < 0.001); and lower blood glucose (WMD −0.91, 95% CI −1.59 to −0.23, P = 0.009). Tai Chi had no significant effect on high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (WMD −0.92, 95% CI −2.21 to −0.37, P = 0.16).
Tai Chi lowers blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, and blood glucose and significantly increases the quality of life in adults with EH. There is strong evidence for the short-term efficacy of Tai Chi exercises. Larger well-designed RCTs focused on the long-term effect of Tai Chi exercises and patient adherence are needed.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Heart & Lung: The Journal of Cardiopulmonary and Acute Care
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Productivity burden of hypertension in Australia.Hypertension. 2019; 73: 777-784
- Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants.Lancet. 2017; 389: 37-55
- Global burden of hypertension and systolic blood pressure of at least 110 to 115mm hg, 1990-2015.JAMA. 2017; 317: 165-182
- Cardiovascular risk factors with an emphasis on hypertension in the Mura Indians from Amazonia.BMC Public Health. 2018; 18: 1251
- Hypertension and cardiovascular risk profile in a middle-income setting: the Helisur study.Am J Hypertens. 2017; 30: 1133-1140
- Hypertension impact on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional survey among middle-aged adults in Chongqing, China.Int J Hypertens. 2016; 20167404957
- 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on clinical practice guidelines.Hypertension. 2018; 71: e13-e115
- Treatment: drug therapy of hypertension.J Am Soc Hypertens. 2015; 9 (quiz 242-233): 239-241
- Tai chi for risk of falls. A meta-analysis.J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017; 65: 2037-2043
- Effect of t'ai chi exercise on hypertension in young and middle-aged in-service staff.J Altern Complement Med. 2019; 25: 73-78
- Effect of 24-style simplified Taijiquan on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension.Hubei J Tradit Chin Med. 2016; 38: 38-39
- The impact of group-based tai chi on health-status outcomes among community-dwelling older adults with hypertension.Heart Lung. 2018; 47: 337-344
- Community-based mind-body meditative tai chi program and its effects on improvement of blood pressure, weight, renal function, serum lipoprotein, and quality of life in Chinese adults with hypertension.Am J Cardiol. 2015; 116: 1076‐1081
- Tai ji quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease: a review.J Sport Health Sci. 2014; 3: 43-51
- Tai chi for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 4CD010366
- Tai chi exercise for patients with cardiovascular conditions and risk factors.J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2009; 29: 152-160
- Tai chi for lowering resting blood pressure in the elderly: a systematic review.J Eval Clin Pract. 2010; 16: 818-824
- The effect of tai chi exercise on blood pressure: a systematic review.Prev Cardiol. 2008; 11: 82-89
- Effects of Tai Chi on adults with essential hypertension in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Eur J Integr Med. 2017; 12: 153-162
- Tai chi for essential hypertension.Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2013; 2013215254
- Meta-analysis of curative effect of taichi on primary hypertension.Clin J Tradit Chin Med. 2016; 10: 1425-1428
- Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the Prisma statement.J Clin Epidemiol. 2009; 62: 1006-1012
- Cochrane Handbook For Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0.John Wiley & Sons, 2011
- Grade: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.BMJ. 2008; 336: 924-926
- Effect of tai chi exercise on blood pressure, hemorheology and long-term quality of life in elderly patients with hypertension.Chin J Gerontol. 2018; 38: 1396-1398
- Effects of taijiquan on 24-hour dynamic blood pressure and vascular function in patients with primary mild hypertension.Chin J Sports Med. 2016; 35: 224-227
- Primary effects on blood pressure and quality of life of patients with hypertension.J Liaoning Univ Tradit Chin Med. 2015; 17: 143-146
- Effects of traditional sports on clinical symptom of agedintellectual patients with essential hypertension.J Beijing Sport Univ. 2009; 32: 67-69
- Clinical study of taijiquan combined with drugs in the treatment of essential hypertension.China Med Herald. 2006; : 43-44
- Therapeutic effect of traditional physical therapy on grade 1 hypertension.Chin Manip Rehabil Med. 2017; 8: 51-52
- Effect of tai chi exercise on elderly hypertension.Chin J Gerontol. 2014; : 6862-6864
- Tai chi exercise is more effective than brisk walking in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults with hypertension: a randomised controlled trial.Int J Nurs Stud. 2018; 88: 44-52
- Effect of eight-style taijiquan on blood pressure in patients with hypertension.Sichuan Sports Sci. 2015; 34: 24-26
- Effects of tai ji quan on blood pressure and lipid profile in patients with stage ⅰ essential hypertension.Int Med Health Guid News. 2007; 13: 60-64
- Effect of eight-style taijiquan on blood pressure, vascular endothelial function and quality of life in patients with essential hypertension.Chin J Gerontol. 2018; 38: 2403-2405
- Dispersion of ventricular repolarization in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in hypertension.J Med Life. 2014; 7: 545-550
- Prevalence and control of dyslipidemia in patients referred for high blood pressure: the disregarded “double-trouble” lipid profile in overweight/obese.Adv Ther. 2019; 36: 1426-1437
- Comparing the changes in blood pressure after acute exposure to tai chi and walking.Int J Exerc Sci. 2019; 12: 77-87
- Blood pressure lowering for prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Lancet. 2016; 387: 957-967
- Effects of tai chi training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.Eur J Heart Fail. 2013; 15: 316-323
- Tai chi for improving cardiopulmonary function and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Clin Rehabil. 2016; 30: 750-764
- Evaluation of impact on health-related quality of life and cost effectiveness of traditional chinese medicine: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.J Altern Complement Med. 2012; 18: 1108-1120
- Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes: prevalence, pathophysiology, and management.Drugs. 2013; 73: 327-339
Published online: March 12, 2020
Accepted: February 7, 2020
Received in revised form: February 2, 2020
Received: May 5, 2019
© 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.