- •Morphological overview of cardiovascular comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary Disease: 'Frank's sign.
- •Cardiovascular diseases are the most common and important comorbidity causes in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
- •Diagonal earlobe crease (Frank's sign) was associated with coronary artery and peripheral vascular diseases.
- •An earlobe examination of patients with COPD may be useful in predicting the presence of cardiac comorbidities with high sensitivity.
Materials and Methods
Abbreviations:COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), Delc (diagonal earlobe crease), Pft (pulmonary function tests), Cvd (cardiovascular diseases), Cad (coronary artery disease), Gold (global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease), Fev1 (forced expiratory volume at 1st second), FVC (Forced Vital Capacity), SaO2 (Arterial oxygen saturation), CRP (C-Reactive Protein), HDL (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein), hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), PTX3 (Pentraxin3), MDA-LDL (Malondialdehyde Low Density Lipoprotein)
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