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Emergency department asthma diagnosis risk associated with the 2012 heat wave and drought in Douglas County NE, USA

  • Larry W. Figgs
    Correspondence
    Correspondence to: Present/Permanent address: 1134 Arbor Spring Court, Ballwin, MO 63021, United States.
    Affiliations
    Environmental Health Division, Douglas County Health Department, 1111 South 41 Street, Omaha, NE 68105, United States
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Published:January 24, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2018.12.005

      Abstract

      Background

      Global climate change concerns are forcing local public health agencies to assess potential disease risk.

      Objective

      Determine if risk of an emergency department asthma diagnosis in Douglas County, NE, was higher during the 2012 heatwave compared to 2011.

      Methods

      Retrospective, observational, case-control design selecting subjects from 2011 and 2012 emergency department (ED) admissions. Risk was estimated by conditional logistic regression.

      Results

      The asthma ED risk estimate was 1.23 (95%CI = 0.96–1.57) times higher in 2012 than 2011, for the same calendar period. Asthma ED diagnosis risk was 3.37 (95%CI = 2.27–4.17) times higher among subjects <19years old compared to older subjects, and 3.25 (95%CI = 2.63–4.02) times higher among African-Americans than non-African–Americans, adjusted for heatwave exposure. Absolute humidity appears inversely related to asthma diagnosis risk ( χ2 = 16.6; p < 0.001).

      Conclusion

      Asthma ED diagnosis risk was not significantly higher in 2012 compared to 2011. Risk was elevated among subjects less than 19years old, and among African Americans; adjusted for heatwave exposure.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AQI (air quality index (unitless)), DCHD (Douglas County Health Department, Omaha, NE), DCHD AQL (Douglas County Health Department Air Quality Lab), COPD (chronic obstructive lung disease), DMAT (daily mean ambient temperature (average temperature per 24 h)), DMATm (median of the daily mean ambient temperature), ED (emergency department), ESSENCE (Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics), °F (degrees Fahrenheit), HMAT (hourly mean ambient temperature per month), ICD9 (International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision), NCEI (National Center for Environmental Information), NE (Nebraska, USA), PM10 (particulate matter 10 μm), PM2.5 (particulate matter 2.5 μm)
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