Case study in cardiovascular nursing| Volume 35, ISSUE 6, P423-426, November 2006

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Abciximab and fatal pulmonary hemorrhage

      Abciximab, a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker, is a well-known agent in percutaneous coronary intervention because of its antiplatelet, antithrombotic effects, which allow for good outcome. Major bleeding is a well-recognized complication of abciximab therapy, and pulmonary hemorrhage, although infrequent, is a serious, under-recognized, and often fatal complication. We describe a case of fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in a young woman who presented with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock and was treated with abciximab in conjunction with percutaneous coronary intervention. The possibility of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage should be strongly suspected in the presence of hypoxemia, infiltrates on chest radiography, and a decrease in hemoglobin. Awareness about this complication of abciximab therapy on the part of physicians and health care professionals is strongly warranted. Therapy that may be used if diagnosis is promptly made includes bronchoscopic-guided balloon tamponade or iced saline lavage. These therapeutic interventions are still in the developmental stage, and to date there are no trials to document their efficacy and survival benefit.
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